Storing Session Data In Cookies: Problems And Security Concerns To Be Aware Of
Back from my extended leave of absence, I’ll re-open the dusty cobwebbed depths of this blog to echo the sentiments of Paul Reinheimer in his recent article “Cookies don’t replace Sessions“. The topic is actually an old one since Ruby On Rails has adopted the strategy of storing application session data in cookies by default (take note, performance hounds). The purposes of storing sessions in userland cookies rather than the conventional “stick-it-on-the-filesystem/database” used by many apps is one of performance and a little obscuration. Cookie data can be accessed faster than hitting the filesystem/database plus it has the dubious ability to disguise the session-targeted programming language. Really though, PHP is assumed to be on all web servers so hiding its existence is a bit like trying to hide an elephant in a zoo. Hide it all you want – we still know there has to be one in there!
In exchange for speeding up session reading, storing session data in cookies has some fairly uncomfortable costs.
Now, developers are not unaware of the problems of storing potentially sensitive application data in plain text files on the user’s PC which users can manipulate, copy, and mangle to their (or the hacker’s currently fiddling with the user’s PC) heart’s content. It’s dangerous depending on just how much you rely on session data to drive other security rules or restrictions on business logic within the application. Technically, the reliance placed on sessions should be close to nothing – session data should drive the application towards other storage solutions for the really essential stuff and just stay around as a minimal identifier/stash of basic ID info. Such minimal information can be dumped, corrupted, or overwritten with the only cost being to perhaps require a user to login again when that happens. Stuffing a bank balance into a session, on the other hand, is one (very exaggerated!) example of the kind of data you should be shot for relying on a session for.
Programmers being programmers, it’s not rare to see sessions become a more intrinsically important storage location than it should be. In those cases, being able to manipulate the session data can become a problem and may give rise to exploitation scenarios where tampering with the stored data leads to some benefit for the manipulator. Obviously we want to make sure that that can’t happen even in scenarios where programmers may be a bit loose with where they store data. We don’t build frameworks and libraries for Gurus, we build them for all programmers – even the sometimes ignorant and under trained ones. This cookie stored session data is often coupled with the ability to encrypt that data. However…
As Paul Rainheimer remarks in his article, “Encryption is often viewed as a panacea for security problems, you sprinkle a little encryption dust around, and your problems dissolve”. This is an absolute truth in programming – programmers often view encryption as a solution without regard for one teeny tiny problem. If you encrypt a set of data for any purpose, even though it’s encrypted, the user (or the hacker hacking the user’s account) still has the data in some usable form!
With perfectly intact data, and even through it’s hidden by encryption, that data can be recycled simply by copying it to another machine. Depending on the data that is stored (which admittedly may require the hacker/user to figure out by doing actual work like finding your open source app on Github or breaking a developer’s fingers until they spill the beans), you can restore past data just by copying over a backup of a prior cookie or repeat a past transaction by continually reusing the original cookie it required. Paul offers a few trivial examples in his article.
Such reuse of data is known as a replay attack. A scenario where even encrypted data can be constantly reused to give rise to a positive result – all without any need whatsoever to break the encryption. The antidote to this vulnerability is to ensure that all data sets are unique and can be used only once, i.e. you include a single-use nonce (some generated set of characters or bits) in the data which is updated whenever that data is used. This continually forces the update of the relevant digital HMAC signature and/or encryption result (even for the exact same data otherwise) in order to prevent any reuse of old data in a replay attack. Once a nonce is used, it’s discarded, and the old data can no longer be accepted by your application. Of course, the downside is that since the nonce must be single-use, you need to keep track of all nonces to ensure they are not accidentally used again. You will need a database, possibly using a nonce-included timestamp as a time limit so your storage requirements aren’t completed insane, which obviously means that just using the traditional database storage for sessions in the first place would have been a much better and simpler choice.
So, in summary, encryption prevents the reading of data but it does not prevent the reuse of existing data. For that to be prevented you need a nonce implementation. And, due to the complexity of using and tracking nonces, practically no cookie stored session solutions will actually offer nonce support because it would eliminate their speed advantage. Which means they are susceptible to replay attacks, which means they are dangerous tools to be swinging around blindly, which means that the old local session storage strategies are still far superior from a security perspective, which all means that you should avoid cookie stores like the damned plague and stick to the old, traditional but secure session storage strategies we already have unless you a) are crazy or b) trust your colleagues (and yourself) not to screw it up.
Even without the security concerns, there is also another less critical downside to storing sessions in cookies which is that cookies have a storage limit of around 4KB. No other storage solution for session data should have that problem but you need to be aware of it anyway as using encryption may push you there sooner than the base data size might suggest (encrypted data size is usually larger than the original data). While noting this, you should never really hit that limit unless you are storing data there that you likely shouldn’t be anyway!
So, cookie based session storage: It’s very fast but lethally insecure if you store the wrong type of data. If you’re going to use it, make sure you keep a tight rein on what data is being stored.